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Www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/10/Page 6 ofthe context of peripheral insulin resistance or T2DM. Similar results have been reported previously, in which the investigators generated models with much higher doses of NDEA [84]. One potential explanation for this paradox is that homeostatic mechanisms may have shifted toward increased storage of lipids/triglycerides in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle
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Ed, suggestive of increased myelin degeneration, in these two groups. Ubiquitin immunoreactivity was virtually undetectable in control and NDEA-exposed cerebella (Figs. 1-D1, 1-D2), but slightly increased in the Purkinje and granule cell layers of HFD-fed cerebella (Fig. 1-D3). Rats exposed to NDEA, and also chronically fed with the HFD, had prominently increased ubiquitin immunoreactivity in Purk
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Ed, suggestive of increased myelin degeneration, in these two groups. Ubiquitin immunoreactivity was virtually undetectable in control and NDEA-exposed cerebella (Figs. 1-D1, 1-D2), but slightly increased in the Purkinje and granule cell layers of HFD-fed cerebella (Fig. 1-D3). Rats exposed to NDEA, and also chronically fed with the HFD, had prominently increased ubiquitin immunoreactivity in Purk
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In HeLa cells. Autophagy. 2011;7(1):27?9. 64. Debnath J, Mills KR, Collins NL, Reginato MJ, Muthuswamy SK, Brugge JS. The role of apoptosis in creating and maintaining luminal space within normal and oncogene-expressing mammary acini. Cell. 2002;111(1):29?0. 65. Fung C, Lock R, Gao S, Salas E, Debnath J. Induction of autophagy during extracellular matrix detachment promotes cell survival. Mol Biol
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Ther hand, recent studies showed that HFD feeding causes obesity, T2DM, and cognitive impairment, but is not sufficient to cause AD [45,46]. Therefore, it's likely that chronic HFD feeding which results in peripheral insulin resistance may provide a second-hit, and that combined with low-dose nitrosamine or other environmental exposures, it may increase the severity of neurodegeneration. In the pr
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Software (GraphPad Software, Inc., San Diego, CA). Software generated significant P-values are shown in the graphs or included in the tables.ResultsEffects of NDEA and HFD on Serum Biomarkers of T2DM (Table 2)Tissue homogenates were prepared in radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer containing protease and phosphatase inhibitors, as previously described [46]. Direct ELISAs were performed in 96-well
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F vehicle or NDEA (N = 12/group) on alternate days beginning on P3. From P21 (weaning), rats were fed with high fat (60 of calories) or low fat (5 of calories) diets for 8 weeks, after which they were sacrificed to harvest cerebella for histopathological and immunohistochemical staining studies. Cerebella were preserved in Histofix and paraffin-embedded sections (8 microns) were stained with (A1

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