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Ry. Early limited exposure to NDEA had no significant effect on any of the indices measured relative to control. Chronic HFD feeding significantly increased the mean levels of pGSK-3b, GFAP, and N-Tyr relative to all other groups (P
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We measured gene expression corresponding to insulin and IGF polypeptides and receptors, and insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) that transmit signals required for growth, survival, energy metabolism, and neuronalELISAs were used to measure sustained effects of NDEA treatment and/or chronic HFD feeding on Tau, phospho-Tau, AbPP, AbPP-Ab, ChAT, and AChE levels in brain tissue. Early limited exposure
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R-group comparisons were made using ANOVA with the post-hoc Bonferroni multiple comparisons test of significance. Significant P-values are indicated within the panels.suggesting that early life exposures may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD, perhaps through gene imprinting. Although chronic HFD feeding and limited NDEA exposure increased body weight and caused T2DM/peripheral insulin resistanc
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Affected in AD, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases [47,50, 53,56,59,60,65,68,69,71], and cerebellar degeneration causes cognitive impairment [49,57-59,62,63,66,67,72]. Previous studies demonstrated significant structural, functional, and metabolic abnormalities in AD cerebella [57-59,82], including insulin and IGF resistance [30],similar to the findings in more traditional targets of AD,
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S such as diabetes mellitus [74], chronicTong et al. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2010, 10:4 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/10/Page 3 ofalcoholism [75], or obesity with metabolic syndrome [45,46]. These systemic diseases share in common with primary central nervous system (CNS) degenerative diseases, impairments in cognition, and deficits in insulin and IGF signaling mechanisms, insulin/IGF res
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Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were significantly lower in the LFD+VEH treated control group compared with all other groups. The mean levels of both serum glucose and insulin were next higher in the LFD+NDEA group, followed by the HFD group. The HFD+NDEA treated rats had the highest mean serum glucose and insulin levels. Correspondingly, serum leptin levels were significant
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Affected in AD, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases [47,50, 53,56,59,60,65,68,69,71], and cerebellar degeneration causes cognitive impairment [49,57-59,62,63,66,67,72]. Previous studies demonstrated significant structural, functional, and metabolic abnormalities in AD cerebella [57-59,82], including insulin and IGF resistance [30],similar to the findings in more traditional targets of AD,

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